La perovskite verso l’industrializzazione

Il fotovoltaico a perovskite fa un passo verso la standardizzazione per le misure di stabilità e quindi verso l’industrializzazione

Tre ricercatori del CHOSE-Polo Solare organico della Regione Lazio, presso il Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica dell’Università di Roma Tor Vergata (Prof. Aldo Di Carlo, Prof. Francesca Brunetti, Dr. Francesca De Rossi) hanno fatto parte di un team di scienziati che si è occupato di raggiungere un consenso per definire le procedure per valutare e riportare le misure di stabilità effettuate sul fotovoltaico a perovskite, la nuova tecnologia che ora è al centro della ricerca sull’energia solare. Questo lavoro è evidenziato nell’articolo appena apparso in Nature Energy (https://rdcu.be/b0DiV) e nell’ Editorial (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41560-020-0552-6 ).

Come affermato nell’editoriale “ Perovskites take steps to industrialization “: “Fino ad ora, la comunità che si occupa di studiare le celle solari a perovskite, non aveva raggiunto un accordo nell’identificare test chiave che potessero individuare le cause specifiche del mal funzionamento per le celle solari a perovskite (PSC), che sono sia la causa che la conseguenza della limitata comprensione del deterioramento dei dispositivi. “Per questo motivo questo documento, frutto della collaborazione di 59 ricercatori di particolare rilevanza aventi 51 affiliazioni differenti, è di particolare rilevanza, poiché tratta i modi con cui la stabilità delle celle solari a perovskite dovrebbe essere valutata e riportata. La comunità scientifica che si occupa di celle solari a perovskite ha iniziato il proprio dibattito ispirata dal lavoro fatto dai colleghi che su celle fotovoltaiche organiche, che nel 2011 hanno sviluppato le raccomandazioni per valutare la stabilità dei loro dispositivi (i cosiddetti protocolli ISOS). Il Prof. Eugene A. Katz, dell’Università di Ben-Gurion del Negev (BGU), attualmente Visiting Professor presso i laboratori del CHOSE-Polo Solare organico della Regione Lazio, e la Prof. Monica Lira-Cantu del Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2) hanno avviato una tavola rotonda, che ha originato questo lavoro, sulla valutazione della stabilità dei PSC in occasione 11th International Summit on Organic and Hybrid Photovoltaics Stability tenutosi in Cina nell’ottobre 2018. Gli esperti hanno integrato i protocolli esistenti con una serie di procedure di prova che tengono conto caratteristiche specifiche delle celle solari a perovskite. L’ applicazione di tali protocolli dovrebbe fungere da fase intermedia nella maturazione della tecnologia a PSC, poiché consentirà l’identificazione delle cause di degrado di tali dispositivi e fornirà le prospettive per la loro mitigazione. Questo documento è il risultato finale del progetto COST Stablenextsol di cui Lira-Cantu è stata la coordinatrice e Katz e Brunetti sono stati leader di Work package. Anche se questo articolo rappresenta un importante passo in avanti nella ricerca nel campo delle PSC, c’è ancora del lavoro da fare per standardizzare le misure di stabilità delle PSC, e questo rappresenterebbe l’ultimo passaggio per passare da un’attività di laboratorio ad una di tipo industriale.

 

Riferimento:

Mark V. Khenkin, Eugene A. Katz, et. al., Mónica Lira-Cantú. Consensus Statement for Stability Assessment and Reporting for Perovskite Photovoltaics based on ISOS Procedures. Nature Energy, 5, p. 35–49 (2020) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0529-5

 

31/01 – 7/02 Seminari per il corso Affidabilità di Sistemi Digitali

Nell’ambito del corso di Affidabilità di Sistemi Digitali, erogato per il corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria Elettronica, il prof. Marco Ottavi (ottavi@ing.uniroma2.it) organizza un ciclo di seminari di cui viene di seguito fornita l’agenda e gli abstract

 

mercoledì  29 gennaio, ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2
Logica Programmabile in Sistemi Safety Critical – Progettazione, Sviluppo e Test
Relatore: Ing. Massimo Fiorelli – Neat S.r.l (seminario annullato)

venerdì 31 gennaio ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2
Reliability of Computing Systems in the Era of Autonomous Vehicles and Supercomputers
Relatore:  Prof. Paolo Rech –  Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

venerdì 31 gennaio ore 14:00 Sala Riunioni R2
Fault Tolerant and Secure Embedded Systems
Relatore:  Dr. Luca Cassano –  Politecnico di Milano

martedì 4 febbraio ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2
Rad-hard standard cells for space applications
Relatore:  Dr. Cristiano Calligaro –  RedCat Devices Srl, Milano, Italy

venerdì 7 febbraio ore 14:30 Sala Riunioni R2
High-Performance Embedded Computing in Space
Relatore: Dr. Gianluca Furano – European Space Agency


mercoledì 29 gennaio, ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2

Logica Programmabile in Sistemi Safety Critical – Progettazione, Sviluppo e Test

Relatore: Ing. Massimo Fiorelli Head of firmware engineering Neat S.r.l

I sistemi safety critical sono in grado di gestire funzioni sempre più complesse e diventano sempre più importanti nella vita di tutti i giorni.
Trasporti (auto, treni, aerei), apparecchi medicali, Impianti industriali, centrali nucleari sono solo alcuni esempi di settori in cui un malfunzionamento di un sistema può avere conseguenze catastrofiche.

Le architetture di questi sistemi hanno caratteristiche comuni e prevedono normalmente più unità di elaborazione che cooperano per realizzare la funzione di sicurezza.
Ciascuna unità di elaborazione, e quindi i suoi sottosistemi HW ed il suo SW, deve rispettare una serie di vincoli e adottare una serie di tecniche standardizzate per garantire l’adeguato livello di integrità della sicurezza del sistema (SIL).

Molto frequente ormai è l’utilizzo di dispositivi programmabili (FPGA) per l’ implementazione di funzioni critiche che necessitano di tempi di risposta veloci o per il controllo di numerosi GPIO.
Per questo motivo le nuove normative pongono molta attenzione sul processo di sviluppo basati su linguaggi di descrizione dell’hardware (VHDL, Verilog). Questo seminario presenterà il ciclo di vita di sistemi safety critical che utilizzano device FPGA: definizione dei requisiti, progettazione, implementazione, test e validazione.

 

Note sul relatore
L’Ing. Massimo Fiorelli è a capo dell’ ingegneria del firmware di Neat. Fiorelli è esperto di architetture di sistemi embedded e real time basati su microprocessori e logiche programmabili.
Neat S.r.l. è specializzata nella progettazione di prodotti HW e SW per applicazioni critiche in ambito avionico/aerospazio, ferrotramviario e industriale.


Venerdì 31 Gennaio ore 14:00 Sala Riunioni R2 Fault Tolerant and Secure Embedded Systems

Speaker: Dr. Luca Cassano Politecnico di Milano

The ubiquitous employment of embedded systems in safety-/mission-critical systems but also in consumer products and the growing interest in autonomous systems, e.g., autonomous cars and drones, impose designers to meet specific reliability-related requirements. Moreover, the distributed supply-chain which is commonly adopted to reduce design costs and time-to- market exposes digital systems to a number of security-related threats.

This talk will introduce the research activities carried out at Politecnico di Milano to design innovative solutions in the area of fault tolerance and security of digital circuits and systems. The first half of the talk will present an adaptive Convolutional Neural Network-based fault management scheme for image processing applications. The second half of the talk will focus on solutions to detect the presence and the activation of Hardware Trojans into CPU-based systems.

Speaker’s short bio

Since September 2017, Dr. Luca Cassano is an assistant professor at the Department of Electronics, Informatics and Bioengineering of the Politecnico di Milano. He received his BSc, MSc and PhD from the University of Pisa. Before his current position, Luca visited the Dipartimento di Automatica e Informatica of the Politecnico di Torino and the Cognitive Interaction Technology – Center of Excellence (CITEC) of the University of Bielefeld, both in 2012. Then, he worked as a post-doctoral researcher at the Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione “A. Faedo”, National Research Council in Pisa, and the Department of Electronics, Informatics and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, and then as an Associate Member of the Technical Staff at Maxim Integrated.

The research activity carried out by Dr. Luca Cassano focuses on the design of dependable and secure embedded systems with particular emphasis on: i) tools for Fault Simulation, Automatic Test Pattern Generation, Testability Analysis and Fault Diagnosis, ii) techniques for fault detection, tolerance and management, and iii) Hardware Security, mainly focusing on Hardware Trojans.


martedì 4 febbraio ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2

Rad-hard standard cells for space applications

Speaker: Dr. Cristiano Calligaro RedCat Devices Srl, Milano, Italy

Semiconductor components to be used in space applications have as a major constraint the need to be resilient against radiations.
Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Effects (SEE) come from energetic particles interacting with silicon devices and produce both hard errors (Latch-up, degradation of oxides) and soft errors (bit flip of memory elements and transient propagation).

To mitigate such effects very tailored design techniques are adopted (Radiation Hardening by Design or simply RHBD) making leverage on standard and well consolidated silicon process (mainly CMOS).
In this tutorial the major effects on the interaction between charged prticles and silicon devices will be presented together with the most common techniques to make a mitigation according to the expected mission (low orbits, high orbits, deep space). Design techniques at circuit level (smart schematics) and at layout level (robust layouts) will be mentioned with a specific focus on digital building blocks (standard cells, embedded SRAMs) used for larger mixed signal ASICs (microcontrollers, core processors, imagers, DSPs).

In the last part of the tutorial some “real world” examples will be shown together with a list of the major Free Open Source (FOS) CAD tools available.

Speaker’s short bio
Cristiano Calligaro received the laurea degree in Electronic Engineering and the Ph.D. degree in Electronics and Information Engineering from the University of Pavia (Italy) in 1992 and 1997 respectively. After obtaining the Ph.D. degree he moved to MAPP Technology. In 2006 he established RedCat Devices srl as a start-up. During his career he has been involved in memory design (volatile and non-volatile) both for consumer application (multilevel flash memories) and space applications (rad-hard memories) and software design for SEE evaluation using free CAD tools (Open Circuit Design). His current research interest is focused on rad-hard libraries for mixed signal ASICs, stand-alone memories (SRAMs and NVMs) and testing methodologies for rad-hard components. He holds 20 patents mainly in the field of multilevel NVMs and is co- author of more than 50 papers and one book (Rad-hard Semiconductor Memories, River Publishers). He has been coordinator of RAMSES and ATENA projects inside the Italy-Israel Cooperation Programme, SkyFlash project in the European FP7 Programme and EuroSRAM4Space project in the Eureka Eurostars2 Programme. He is IEEE Senior Member and Eureka Euripides reviewer.


venerdì 7 febbraio ore 11:00 Sala Riunioni R2    Anticipato a venerdì 31 gennaio

Reliability of Computing Systems in the Era of Autonomous Vehicles and Supercomputers

Speaker: Prof. Paolo Rech
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Reliability is one of the major concerns for both safety-critical and High-Performance Computing applications. A neutron impact can generate faults in computing devices, leading to application crashes, wrong results, and system hangs. Several evidences showed that neutron-induced faults have corrupted large-server operations, have caused unexpected behaviors in airplanes, lead to car accidents … and have even influenced politics results.

In the talk we will briefly cover the effects of neutron impact on computing systems and applications. Particular emphasis will be given to self-driven cars, which is the newest trend in the automotive industry. We will present the results of several experiments on object- detection frameworks for automotive applications and show that neutrons can effectively change the way a vehicle senses objects, potentially leading to accidents.

Lately, novel architectural solutions, such as heterogeneous computing and mixed-precision architectures, have been introduced to increase devices computational efficiency. We will discuss if and how we can take advantage of these novel architectural solutions to improve applications reliability without unnecessary overhead. Particular attention will be given to the reliability of Xilinx Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGA), Intel Xeon Phis, NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), ARM embedded devices, and AMD heterogeneous devices.

Speaker’s short bio
Paolo Rech received his master and Ph.D. degrees from Padova University, Padova, Italy, in 2006 and 2009, respectively. He was then a Post Doc at LIRMM in Montpellier, France. Since 2012 Paolo is an associate professor at UFRGS in Brazil. He is the 2019 Rosen Scholar Fellow at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and he is actively collaborating with major research centers as Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory as well as silicon industries as NVIDIA, AMD, and ARM. His main research interests include the evaluation and mitigation of radiation-induced effects in large-scale HPC centers and in autonomous vehicles for automotive applications and space explorations.


venerdì 7 febbraio ore 14:30 Sala Riunioni R2 High-Performance Embedded Computing in Space

Speaker: Dr. Gianluca Furano European Space Agency

Future missions, such as active debris removal for cleaning up the low Earth orbit environment, will rely on novel high-performance avionics to support advanced image processing algorithms with substantial workloads. However, when designing new avionics architectures, constraints relating to the use of electronics in space present great challenges, further exacerbated by the need for significantly faster processing compared to conventional space-grade central processing units. With the long-term goal of designing high performance embedded computers for space, in this seminar, an extended study and tradeoff analysis of a diverse set of computing platforms and architectures (i.e., central processing units, multicore digital signal processors, graphics processing units, and field-programmable gate arrays, AI accelerators) will be presented.

Speaker’s short bio
Gianluca Furano, works in European Space Agency’s in Data System Division in March 2003. He is in charge for research and development activities and for supporting ESA projects and missions in the field of spacecraft data systems and the related architectures.
Among’s Gianluca interest are in ESA are on-board computers and their major components, such as microprocessors and support components, meeting very stringent requirements in terms of radiation tolerance, reliability, availability, and safety; key avionics building blocks such as platform mass memories, remote terminal units, on-board buses and data networks; on-board and space to ground data communication protocols including protocol security aspects.
Gianluca also provides support to European standardisation (CCSDS, ECSS) in areas such as telemetry, telecommand and on-board data, wireless and monitoring & control interfaces.

29/01 – 28/02: Seminari per la Ph.D. School in Electronic Engineering

Prende il via il 29 gennaio una serie di seminari organizzati dal prof. Gaspare Galati del dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica, per la Ph.D. School in Electronic Engineering.

Qui di seguito il calendario, l’abstract degli argomenti e le bio dei relatori

29/01 – Learning in the 5G Edge Cloud
4/02 – Animal Monitoring by Wireless Sensor Network with Experiments in Galapagos (Ecuador)
28/02 – The Redefinition of the International System of Units

 

Mercoledì 29/01 dalle ore 15:00 alle ore 17:00 presso l’Università degli Studi di Roma TOR VERGATA Facoltà di Ingegneria – Via del Politecnico, 1 – Aula B15 – Nuovo Edificio Didattico

Il Prof. Sergio Barbarossa di Sapienza università di Roma terrà un seminario organizzato dal Prof. Gaspare Galati per la Ph.D. School in Electronic Engineering – DIE – Tor Vergata University su:

Learning in the 5G Edge Cloud

Abstract: In this talk, we will start reviewing the basic motivations and enabling technologies underlying 5G networks. Then we will focus on the mobile edge cloud architecture and motivate the need for a holistic view of communication, computation and caching to meet stringent service delay constraints. We will present adaptive computation and communication scheduling mechanisms based on stochastic optimization, running in an environment affected by various sources of uncertainty. Finally, we will present various learning techniques, with a specific attention to methods based on topological representations able to capture multiway relations among the data.

Sergio Barbarossa:

Sergio Barbarossa is a Full Professor at Sapienza University of Rome and a Senior Research Fellow of the Sapienza School for Advanced Studies. After graduating at Sapienza Univ. of Rome, he worked with Selenia SpA from 1984 to 1986. He has held several visiting positions at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (’88), Univ. of Virginia (’95, ‘97), Univ. of Minnesota (’99). He is an IEEE Fellow, a EURASIP Fellow and he served as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. He received the 2010 Technical Achievements Award from the EURASIP society for his contributions on radar, communication and networks. He won the IEEE Best Paper Awards from the IEEE Signal Processing Society for the years 2000 and 2014. He has been the scientific coordinator of several European projects on wireless sensor networks, small cell networks, and distributed mobile cloud computing. He is currently one of the PI’s of the H2020 EU/Taiwan Project 5G-Conni, targeting the development of 5G private networks for Industry 4.0. His research interests include topological signal processing, graph-based machine learning algorithms, stochastic optimization, 5G networks and mobile edge computing.


il Dr. Pierpaolo Loreti, il Dr. Lorenzo Bracciale, il Dr. Gabriele Gentile

dell’Università degli Studi di Roma TOR VERGATA terranno un seminario organizzato dal Prof. Gaspare Galati per la Ph.D. School in Electronic Engineering – DIE – Tor Vergata University il giorno martedì 4/02 dalle ore 14:00 alle ore 16:00 presso l’Università degli Studi di Roma TOR VERGATA Facoltà di Ingegneria – Via del Politecnico, 1 – Aula B15 – Nuovo Edificio Didattico su:

Animal Monitoring by Wireless Sensor Network with Experiments in Galapagos (Ecuador)

Abstract: The design of wireless sensor nodes for animal tracking is a multidisciplinary activity that presents several research challenges from both technical and biological point of views. A monitoring device has to be designed accounting for all system requirements including the specific characteristics of animals and environment. In this talk we present some aspects of the design of the wireless sensor node to track and monitor the pink iguana: a recently discovered species living in remote locations at the Galapagos Islands. The few individuals of this species live in a relatively small area that lacks of any available communication infrastructure. We present and discuss the energy harvesting architecture and the related energy management logic. We also discuss the impact of packaging on the sensor performance and the consequences of the limited available energy on the GPS tracking. We also present the new results coming from 20 devices installed on wild pink and yellow Iguanas in September 2019 and whose operation is planned for one year.

Pierpaolo Loreti:

Pierpaolo Loreti is Researcher in Telecommunications at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. Since 2006 he has been a Researcher of the Dep. of Electronic Engineering and an Adjunct Professor at the Internet Engineering Course at the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Since 1998 he has worked on several European and national projects performing research and coordination activities. His research activity spans different topics in the areas of wireless and mobile networks, IoT systems and platforms, framework design, analytic modelling, performance evaluation through simulation and test-bedding.

Lorenzo Bracciale:

Lorenzo Bracciale, Ph.D. is a Researcher at the University of Tor Vergata since June 2013 in the Department of Electronic Engineering where he currently teaches “Computer Science Fundamentals”. He published his works on more than 22 international peer-reviewed conferences, 6 journals, and wrote three book chapters. He served as a reviewer on many conferences and journals, among which “Transactions on wireless communications” and “Transaction on Networking”. His current research interests are in the field of IoT systems and data privacy.

Gabriele Gentile:

Gabriele Gentile received his Ph.D. degree “with distinction” in evolutionary biology in 1994. From 1998 to 2003, he was at the Osborn Memorial Laboratory of Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Since 2003, he is based at the Department of Biology, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. He is Member of IUCN, Iguana Specialist Group, and a Council Member of the Italian Society for Evolutionary Biology. He is interested in molecular phylogeny and phylogeography, molecular evolution, population genetics, conservation genetics, ecology and evolution of underground communities, and island biogeography. Since 2003, he has been the head of an international and multidisciplinary project for the study of the evolution and conservation of land iguanas in Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) in partnership with the Galápagos National Park and in collaboration with several Italian and foreign institutions.


Venerdì 28/02 dalle ore 10:00 alle ore 12:30 presso l’Università degli Studi di Roma TOR VERGATA Facoltà di Ingegneria – Via del Politecnico, 1 – Aula B15 – Nuovo Edificio Didattico

Il Dr. Luca Callegaro

dell’ Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) terrà un seminario organizzato dal Prof. Gaspare Galati per la Ph.D. School in Electronic Engineering – DIE – Tor Vergata University su:

The Redefinition of the International System of Units

Abstract: The International System of units (SI) is the basis of modern day measurements. In the SI currently in force, base units are defined in very different ways; the kilogram is defined as the mass of a single object, the international prototype – a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy manufactured in 1889. The prototype is unique, at risk of damaging, nearly inaccessible (only about every 40 years) and there is some evidence of a change in its mass. On 16 November 2018 the General Conference of Weights and Measures has approved a major redefinition of the SI. All the seven base units are defined in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, which will have an exact value. It will be possible to realize the units everywhere and every time, by probing with experiments these fundamental constants. Electrical units are defined in terms of the elementary charge e and the Planck constant h; it will be possible to realize the volt, ohm and ampere by quantum experiments in solid-state devices. The kilogram, redefined in terms of the Planck constant h, is realized by counting atoms in a silicon sphere, or linking it to the quantum realization of the electrical power unit, the watt. The redefinition entered into force on May 20th, 2019.

Luca Callegaro:

Luca Callegaro holds a degree in Electronic Engineering (1992) and a Ph. D. in Physics (1996), both from Politecnico di Milano. He joined the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, INRIM in Torino in 1996. His research interests are focused on electrical impedance; he is responsible of the Italian National standards of electrical impedance. He is chairman of the Technical Committee for Electricity and Magnetism (TC-EM) of EURAMET, the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. He is author of over 90 papers on international reviews and of the book “Electrical impedance: principles, measurement and applications”.

Lighting Engineering: il nuovo corso di formazione a.a. 2019-2020 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica

Al via la prima edizione del Corso di Formazione in Lighting Engineering, organizzato presso il Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica dell’Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”.

Il Corso di Formazione in Lighting Engineering ha come finalità l’apprendimento di competenze tecniche nel campo delle tecnologie dedicate al mondo delle luci e degli effetti speciali per lo spettacolo.

Progettato per ruoli professionali quali tecnico delle luci, progettista di effetti luce e speciali per il mondo del live, del teatro, broadcast TV e del cinema, il percorso formativo è ideato al tempo stesso per sviluppare competenze ingegneristiche, in particolare nella progettazione di apparati.

Suddiviso in 14 moduli formativi per un totale di 256 ore, il Corso inizierà a novembre 2019 per terminare nel mese di marzo 2020, toccando sia aspetti di carattere tecnico scientifico, sia aspetti pratici legati alla tecnologia delle luci. Vi si accede con il diploma di scuola secondaria superiore.

É possibile iscriversi fino al 30 ottobre 2019.

Per maggiori informazioni e per consultare il bando:
https://web.uniroma2.it/module/name/Content/action/showpage/content_id/76685/section_id/

 

 

Il Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica pubblica la sua newsletter

Nata per fornire all’esterno una rinnovata immagine del dipartimento, la Newsletter del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica – il cui primo numero è uscito all’inizio di giugno 2019 – è disponibile alla lettura in formato pdf ed è consultabile nel sito web del dipartimento eln.uniroma2.it

“Vogliamo raggiungere studenti, imprese, colleghi” ha sottolineato il prof Ernesto Limiti, direttore del dipartimento, nel suo editoriale di apertura. La pubblicazione ospita saggi, risultati di ricerche, iniziative didattiche, eventi e seminari. La redazione è formta da Ernesto Limiti (limiti@ing.uniroma2.it), Mauro De Sanctis (de.sanctis@ing.uniroma2.it), Rosanna Gervasio (rosanna.gervasio@uniroma2.it)

Buona lettura!